13days.jpg
13days.jpg
13days.jpg


October, 1962 - as close as the world will ever come to a nuclear World War III. What happened in those critical 13 days in October? Let's find out as you help President Kennedy make crucial decisions about the future of the United States ... and the world. In your group of advisors, log in to the chatroom for your period and cut and paste the material below into a new page on your Unit 8 notebook.



I need some help from my advisors. Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev has taken an open and oppositional stand against the United States since taking over from Joseph Stalin in the 1950s. The Soviets have been brutal in Hungary, launched an ICBM, and shot down a U-2 plane (sure it was taking control of military installations, but that’s a different story). Khrushchev has stated that he will “bury” the US (loosely translated), he has repeatedly interrupted the United Nations with his shouting, and he has even taken off his shoe and banged it on a desk in the UN. I am a new President, and obviously the Bay of Pigs incident doesn’t help my international standing with anyone, especially Khrushchev. I know that Castro and Khrushchev have a very freindly relationship, but we have recently had a decent relationship with Cuba.

DAYS 1-3 Tuesday, October 16 to Thursday, October 18
I have just seen pictures that show Russian missile launchers located on the island of Cuba, 90 miles from our border. The launchers could be fitted with nuclear warheads for offensive strikes on U.S. sites as far away as Montana. I need some help in deciding what we should do about these missiles in Cuba. I don’t think I can handle the pressure alone.
There are many possible ideas - an air strike, an invasion of mainland Cuba, a naval blockade, a diplomatic protest in the United Nations, and other ideas. I know this decision will be extremely crucial for the safety of Americans and the world in general. What benefits and challenges do the options present, and which option should I take?

OUR RESPONSE AND REASON- We would go with a nonviolent approach. Blockading Cuba is a good idea but call it a quarantine so they don't think it is an act of war so we won't be attacked. They won't be able to get any war supplies which will prevent World war 3.

WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS
They do a naval quarantine so they can't get any supplies to Cuba. It is really a blockade but they call it a quarantine so it wouldn't be seen as an act of war.DAY 4 - 7- Friday, October 19 to Monday, October 22
The Washington press corps has found out that something strange and important is going on. We are working well into the night, and I had to leave a planned trip to Chicago due to “the flu” (wink wink). I have placed the military on full alert, and I have notified our allies that there is some serious trouble brewing with the Soviets. Congress, which is on recess, has been alerted and party leaders are becoming aware of the situation. Nearly 200,000 American troops have been moved to Key West, Florida - the largest invasion force ever assembled on American soil. The news is going to break sooner or later, so I need some more advice. Do I tell the public of the evidence of Soviet missiles in Cuba and the possibility that U.S. ships will be enforcing a quarantine of Cuba? How much do I tell them? Or should I just stay quiet?

OUR RESPONSE AND REASONIt is best for JFK to tell them himself that way the news does not exaggerate or make up something that is not true which would create unneeded mass hysteria. Tell the public the truth in a non overwhelming way. Also tell them about our plan of a blockade Cuba and the fact that Cuba has weapons that they are willing to use on the United States. Don't mention that the weapons are nuclear missiles because the best thing to do is make sure the citizens are not in a panic state.

WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENSHe tells the people about the nuclear weapons and how they are for attacking the western hemisphere and on the US by Soviet Union. He also says that the Communist Leader of Russia should stop threatening world peace. He tells them of the naval blockade. Any attack on the western hemisphere will be taken as an attack on the US and then we will fire missiles at Russia which are aimed at Russia from Turkey.


DAY 8 - 9 Tuesday, October 23 to Wednesday, October 24
We have put the quarantine into effect and told the Soviet Union of our intentions to stop any and all Soviet ships from entering Cuba. Cuba has bulked up its military along the coasts in preparation for a possible invasion and called the U.S. a bully at the United Nations. Moscow is accusing the U.S. of piracy. A Soviet ship is approaching the quarantine line and attempts to break through the quarantine. What should we do about the oncoming ship, and why?

OUR RESPONSE AND REASON
Fire somewhere towards the ship without hitting it as a warning so they think they are in a chance of danger and will turn away.

WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS
They let the one ship go through but all the other soviet ships headed to the island stopped because they thought that they would let one through but the next one will be attacked.

We also have evidence that the Soviets are installing actual weapons that will be able to fire on the U.S. in a matter of days. My decision is now a matter of peace or war. Should I give the order to fire weapons on the existing missile sites, set an ultimatum for removal of the missiles, destroy Soviet ships in the Caribbean, send troops to Cuba, move nuclear subs toward the USSR, or attempt any further means of peaceful diplomacy? I need some help, EXCOMM!

OUR RESPONSE AND REASONConstruct a spy mission with spy planes to try to figure out if the Cubans are really planning on launching the missiles but they shouldn't get shot at so that soldiers won't be sent to their death.

WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS
He waits to that the soldiers won't be sent to their death and there won't be a nuclear holocaust.

DAY 10-12- Thursday, October 25 to Saturday, October 27
Proceedings are becoming heated at the United Nations. Our delegate to the UN has openly challenged the Soviet Union about the missiles, without getting a desired response. Tensions remain high between the two countries. Nikita Khrushchev and the Soviets have made two offers - the first is to remove the missiles from Cuba in exchange for no American invasion of Cuba, and the second demands U.S. removal of missiles from Turkey in return for the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba. What do you do in this situation - accept either of the offers, make a counter offer, or demand immediate removal or else troops and weapons will be deployed?

OUR RESPONSE AND REASON
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WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS
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DAY 13 - Sunday, October 28
It’s over! Thanks for your help. We were close to a big problem, weren’t we? Hopefully we all learned something about decision making and not jumping to do something without considering all options! What did we learn from this crisis?

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